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Team-Based Learning


Last Reviewed:
March 7, 2024

First Published:
March 4, 2022


Team-based learning (TBL) is a student-centered instructional strategy that utilizes a flipped classroom model allowing students the opportunity to work in groups to solve authentic problems. TBL is a collaborative, active learning strategy that can be utilized in both large and small classrooms, and “supports the development of high-performance learning teams and provides opportunities for these teams to engage in significant learning tasks” (Fink, 2004, p.9). Learning activities within TBL follow a specific order, i.e., pre-work completed prior to class, individual and team readiness assurance tests, immediate feedback, and application activity.  

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  1. Four essential principles of TBL (Michaelsen et al., 2008) 
    1. Groups must be properly formed and managed 
    2. Students must be made accountable for their individual and group work 
    3. Group assignments must promote both learning and team development 
    4. Students must have frequent and timely performance feedback 
  2. When developing cases or problems for TBL sessions, follow the 4 S’s
    1. Significant problem 
    2. Same problem 
    3. Specific choice 
    4. Simultaneous report