Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered, active learning strategy where students work in small groups (4-6 members) to solve complex, real-world problems that can have multiple solutions. While similar to case-based and team-based learning in that student groups solve problems, PBL emphasizes the student’s role in identifying learning objectives and knowledge gaps based on the problem and minimizes the instructor’s role to facilitator. Participation in PBL activities allow students to develop skills in problem-solving, critical thinking, communication, and teamwork skills (Nilson 2010). According to Barrows (1986), objectives of a PBL activity include “structuring knowledge for use in clinical contexts, developing an effective clinical reasoning process, developing effective self-directed learning skills, and increasing motivation for learning.”
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